Diabetes is a chronic disease. Controlling and vigilance of the disease should be a shared responsibility of the patient and their health professionals.
Patients should have a diabetes consultation at least twice a year.
In addition to a clinical assessment, which includes an objective test, laboratory testing and assessment of capillary blood glucose levels recorded by the patient, all doubts related to the management of the disease should be discussed. In this context, referrals to other consultations or diagnostic exams may occur.
Diabetic patients should also be evaluated on a yearly basis by an ophthalmologist.
Regular and frequent monitoring by a podiatrist is also recommended.
The following tests are representative of the type performed within the scope of diabetes assessment and consultation:
- Glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), which conveys the mean value of blood glucose over the past three months. This is the most important parameter in this context and its results may be converted into mean blood glucose values: :
Hemoglobin A1c (%) Mean blood glucose value (mg/mL) 6 126 6,5 140 7 154 7,5 169 8 183 8,5 197 9 212 9,5 226 10 240
- Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, or “good cholesterol”, LDL Cholesterol, or “bad cholesterol”, and Triglycerides.
- Microalbumin and creatinine are two important parameters in the vigilance of the renal consequences of diabetes. Microalbumin consists of determining small quantities of protein in the urine, which is an early sign of kidney disease. The creatinine value is an indirect measure of the renal function, and when this value is increased, it is an indication of a deterioration in renal function.
Self-vigilance of capillary blood glucose
Determination of capillary blood glucose and its recording are important instruments in the control of diabetes.
Not everyone with diabetes is required to conduct such measurements. If well controlled, Type 2 Diabetes, with low levels of medication required, the measurements may be of minimal use. However, in other situations, it may be highly advantageous to conduct one or two measurements per day. Your physician can discuss the best approach adapted to your circumstances.
In the diabetes consultation, one aim is to identify the device that is most in line with the characteristics of each diabetic patient. A record of the values may be carried out electronically or in books specifically designed for the purpose of manual recording.